Custom «The Consequences of Totalitarianism and Nazism and Their Lessons» Essay Paper Sample
The book by Hannah Arendt The Origins of Totalitarianism published in 1951 was devoted to the totalitarianism topic, mainly Stalinism and Nazism, as the main political regimes of the 20th century. The book reveals the nature of the social transformations and the influence of wars on the life of world community through the prism of difficult consequences and forthcoming controversies between the nations. The role of every enacted routine reflected the changes in the society and predetermined their interconnection in the near future. The following perspectives of the world community from the origins of totalitarianism and the mistakes of the past should be taken into account. The daily life was concerned with the lofty topics and the global scale of the problem. The decisions of the human nature and the right to have rights were up to the nations from the lessons of history. Nowadays, new guarantees for human dignity are required to ensure a better life which will not be encroached. It would facilitate the nations to have the right for rights.
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The manifestations of totalitarianism have brought the corrections into people’s lives quietly, but in a revolutionary way. Depriving the citizens of independence by the authorities taking the whole responsibilities contributed to the favourable implementation of new political views, impregnated by widespread regulation of all spheres of life of the citizens. On the background of the individual's infancy, there is the aggressive propaganda used by the ideology to influence the moral values of the society, police control to identify the dissidents, the attitude of the society on permission from the authorities, censorship of all the spheres of people’s activities which could give a rise to criticism and make sober “cons” arguments, etc. The relationship between the state and the society was only at a short leash.
The deprivation or maximum limitation of the right on privacy forced a person to act in their own interests and defend themselves. Therefore, the subsequent demonstration of other forms of social intolerance was associated with the effects of the ideological concepts on person that was favourable to the government, which aggressively and expressively fed the nations. The rights and human dignity on a global level were no longer a value during the deployment of hostilities and the imperialist pretensions of totalitarian countries.
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Nazism and Stalinism, which took their origins from the dissemination of propaganda or temporary tactical measures, were based on terror and practiced false. If there was an opposition which generally ceased to exist in the further development of the totalitarianism, the regime used the indoctrination as a main tool of increasing the number of followers and better distribution in the public and private lives. The above measures guaranteed control over the individual, but not over the observance of their rights.
The political events of the 20th century were characterised by ideological absolutism, maintaining the concentration of terror in public life, the absolute authoritativeness of public institutions, and the transformation of the economy into the mainstream needed to the state apparatus to paralyse the work of the media and undermine the fundamental democratic principles. In these circumstances, the human rights were rather rewritten in favour of ruling regime and focused on the subtext of serving the people, which at that time could be identified with the state machine.
The ideology which was entirely absorbed by the various manifestations of individualism and democracy was not conducive to the personal development and facilitated the mass of citizens in order to manage their faceless numbers easier. In this context, human dignity did not become a subject of debate and was not a part of the constitutional rights.
The focus on the national identity, cultural differences of people, and their national character was the paramount step in the development of different forms of ethnic intolerance, which formed the "clean-up" programs of the entire territorial units. Racist social attitudes, in particular, anti-Semitism, were known during the governing of Nazism and Stalinism. The representatives of the national minorities living in Europe during the World War II were not considered as individuals with definite human rights. They were forced to experience belittled human dignity and were destroyed for the sake of "light" ideological purpose, dictated by the military authorities.
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The prevalence of anti-Semitism, imperialism, and totalitarianism has left its mark on the modern perception of nationalities and the feeling of hostility of individuals towards each other on the basis of nationalism and racism for a long time. Therefore, the world needs a new ideology of rehabilitation, which should replace the aggressive political terror. It should have the international vision of modern moral problems and concepts, which could guarantee the highest status of human dignity and rights.
Violation of these conceptual moral positions due to the establishment of the totalitarian regime, the increase of imperialist appetite, and division of nations into superior and inferior dominated for a century. The destruction of human nature by the ideology of edification and the physical destruction crippled the entire era and led to aggressive perception of other nations and countries. Motley of political, religious, and social foundations has displayed precariousness of human dignity and the individual legal basis.
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The guarantee of human dignity is dictated by the need to deprive the spread of the past political trends and elevate human dignity by improving the regulatory actions in all spheres of human activity. Since the rights and dignity have been infringed and the nations have experienced the oppression by the government and its followers for a long time, the world should form the community to renew a fair and equal respect and human dignity for people of all nationalities.
The rights and freedoms of nations, disadvantaged by history and regimes, should be guaranteed with the inviolable rights to live, designate the nationality and own private property, participate in the country governance, work in conditions with ensured maintenance of safety and health, receive appropriate payment for the committed efforts, etc. The importance of measures aimed to apply these rights is conditioned by the need to leave the area of continuous hostilities and to minimise the existence of imperialist ideas throughout the world.
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New guarantees of development of political principles and laws on the human dignity are still needed because each person possesses them from birth regardless of nationality and ideology of the country. In addition, it is the basis for the constitutional rights, right to liberty, and other legal rights. Consequently, this concept demands the initial emphasis in the context of global and national transformations.
The changes in laws at all levels, the introduction of new humanitarian principles of the work in all governments of the world, the accountability of these functions performance in international non-profit, social, and legal organisations, and dissemination of them in the work of all economic actors will support the development of human dignity, rights, and freedoms. In this case, the right to have rights will find its place in a new approach to solve the questions of morality and humanity. Based on the origins of democracy and destructive experience of totalitarianism, the new guarantees should restore the common law of human rights. In the context of elevation of the human dignity, this vision of accessible and equal rights for all nations sounds organic and natural.
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The new concept or the new political regime should provide a greater volume of moral rights and freedoms of a person to prevent wars and revolutions, in which the right on life and the steadfastness of health of others is ruthlessly destroyed. The imperialist regime of territory acquisition is still relevant in the countries which participated in wars and continues to develop in those countries that share the historical territories.
The development of diplomatic relations and the rapid growth of resource-saving technologies do not affect the completion of the attempt at human rights in many countries. Solubility of conflicts in the peaceful ways without the existence of Stalinism and Nazism from the most knowledgeable and progressive layers of the population indicates the gradual steps to a new better future.
The fighting with the past errors of Nazism in Germany and other occupied territories during the World War II should be introduced to the new perspectives of the world development. The experience of ignoring the human dignity by the totalitarian-minded groups should become the learned lessons for modern generations that cannot be forgotten. According to the book, a huge number of casualties and massive persecution are the testament to what can happen by giving power to the ruling circles. The independent decisions of citizens, accessibility of the human rights, moral education, the increase of national and racial tolerance, demonstration of absolute advantages of nations, and their contribution to the global development will be the landmarks that are needed to guide the development of the appropriate programs.
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The gradual replacement of one generation by another promotes the fact that manifestations of totalitarianism, social intolerance, and imperialism cannot be given the acute value due to their exposure, but the catastrophic consequences of the rule may occur in one or another structure and take other democratic forms. The past cannot go into oblivion, because human nature rarely requires the release of energy. Taking this into account, and even in spite of this, humanity should remember that each of its structural units should not endure humiliation and infringement of the rights and dignity, as there is equality of every human throughout the world.
This guarantee will allow asserting the existence of equal rights over the world. The success of the creation, support, and monitoring of human rights will depend on domestic policies of a country and social readiness of its citizens. For example, Germany with sympathy and sorrow has recognised its responsibility to the actions of its former leader. This generation could not even remember the ideological impact on their citizens and the use of force towards other nations from the personal experience. The residents of modern and successful European country are interested in loyalty towards the nations that were harmed by the previous generation of Germans.
The right out to have rights indicated in the book also claims that the human dignity is also a right. Each person should have that right notwithstanding the circumstances and anyone's views. The human dignity has already derived from the right on social, economic, and political freedoms, which were not foreseen during the Nazi’s anti-Semitic activities and/or total control of Stalinism. The morality of this issue is the overall existence of any person, regardless of natural characteristics, and overall usefulness to society. The same position had the Nazi ideology of the Aryan Nation, which criteria did not fit to Jews and other national minorities in Germany and the Soviet Union. The beliefs about the inferiority of some people over others were based on the comparative characteristics of nations.
Enslavement of nations by others and distribution of natural resources have always been the purpose or a reason to start global conflicts. The military fights resulted in the people’s deaths that violate their rights on life. The decisions taken by authorities of the countries were not based on the values of the human dignity and the rights of individual. Therefore, open dangerous conflicts should be discontinued due to the experiences of the ambitious ideas, such as Stalinism and Nazism.
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The importance of acceptance of the human dignity in the society lies in the fact that it plays a crucial role in the development of the personality and legal guarantees of life of a country. Such position of the pattern also displays current progressive or regressive state of society. The important value of the human dignity right to the society intends to stabilise the political confrontation, improve social optimism, witness a constitutional rule, note the loyalty and ethnic tolerance, and, thus, fully meet the individual's right to have rights within this society. This may have respect to both the global and national societies.
It is important to take into account the fact that the development and implementation of the programs to ensure that changes should occur in any state as the structural element of the world system. At the same time, if such rules adhere only to the world's elite and manifestations take place only at the global level without adjusting them in each city, the overall effectiveness and success of legal application and implementation of these principles and rights will be distorted and reduced.
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To sum up, the idea to ensure the proper future by recreating the legal and conceptual foundations of human existence deserves deep understanding, consideration, and implementation. The new guarantee for human dignity should bring loyalty, independence and humanism to the human nature, because these positions were absent in the earlier historical regimes. Hence, the new guarantee automatically makes the role of the right to have rights effective and primacy.