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An Art can refer to a sense of masterly or trained ability of a medium. Art can also refer to the highly developed and efficient use of a certain language to deliver meaning with immediacy and depth. Art is the precise act of expressing thoughts, feelings and observations. There is an understanding that is reached with the material as a result of handling it, which facilitates one's thought processes.
Non western art refers to any type art objects initiating from the societies and cultures and outside of the Western world. The West includes the nations of Europe and the arts that utilize European aesthetics. The Arts of colonized regions such as Australia, the United States, Canada and New Zealand are deliberated as the West. However, the arts from the intrinsic populates of these countries are talked about to non-Western art. (Howard, 2006)
The history of art as we know it in the 21st era arose in the 19th century but has instances dating to the early world. Like the study of historical trends in literature, politics and the sciences, the discipline welfares from the clarity and transferability of the written word. Nonetheless, historians of art also rely on formal analysis, iconography, semiotics, and psychoanalysis. Advances in the reproduction of photography and printing techniques after the second World War improved the ability of reproductions of artworks. Such skills have helped to improve the discipline in philosophical ways, as they have allowed easy contrasts of objects. The learning of visual art thus defined, can be a practice that comprises of the understanding form, context and social significance.
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The historians of Art s use a number of methods in their study into the nature and quality and history of objects. They often examine a certain piece of work in the context of its time. At best, this is completed in a manner which takes into consideration its creator's inspirations and imperatives , and also with deliberation of the wishes and prejudices of its customers and sponsors; with a proportional analysis of approaches and refrains of the creator's contemporaries and teachers and lastly the with deliberation of iconography and symbolism. Briefly, this approach studies the work of art in the perspective of the world in which it was created. The Art historians also frequently examine work through an examination of form; namely, the creator's usage of line, color, shape, composition and texture. This method examines how the performer or painter uses a picture plane of two-dimensions or the three dimensions of sculptural or architectural space to produce his or her art.
The technique these individual elements are used consequences in representational or non-representational art. The question to deliberate on is- Is the artist imitating an image or object found in nature? If so, it is representative? The nearer the art hews to perfect imitation, the more the realistic is the art. Is the painter not imitating, but in its place relying on symbolism or in an imperative way striving to capture nature's spirit, rather than copy it unswervingly? If that's the case the art is non-representational-which is also refered to as abstract. Practicality and abstraction exist on a range. Impressionism is an instance of a representational style that was not imitative directly, but endeavored to create natures' "impression" . If the work is not representational and is a manifestation of the artist's longings, feelings and ambitions, or is a search for standards of beauty and form, the work is a non-representational or a work of expressionism.
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An iconographical examination is one which attentions on particular design fundamentals of an object. Through a close analysis of such fundamentals, it is probable to trace their lineage, and with it draw deductions regarding the roots and trajectory of these motifs. In sequence, it is likely to make any number of explanations regarding the cultural, social, economic and artistic values of those responsible for producing the object. Many historians of art use critical theory to edge their inquiries into objects. Theory is best often used when dealing with more current objects, those created or starting from the late 19th century onward. Critical theory in the history of art is often borrowed from literary scholars, and it comprises the application of a non-artistic investigative framework to the examine of art objects. Feminist, queers, Marxist, post colonial and critical race theories are all well-established in the discipline. As in literary studies, there is attentiveness among researchers in nature and the setting, but the direction that this will yield in the discipline has yet to be determined. (H, 2008)
In societies with no engraved language, stories, songs and theater aided as ways to pass on information around history, creation myths and morality stories as well as amusement. In other non-Western values, languages have a long mythical history and writing turn out to be a visual as well as literary art. The sophisticated and skillful implementation of calligraphy became significant aspects of art in such places as Arabia ,India, Persia and China.
Muslim prohibitions on exhibiting the human form mean that Islamic skill and architecture is nonconcrete and much of the artistic intention is focused around the linguistic. Abstract, non-literal images such as geometric tile designs, arabesques, architecture and origins became vessels or artistic countenance rather than figures and paintings of human or bodily subjects. Calligraphy, particularly of religious appearances and excerpts from the book of Koran, is found on art objects and architectural structures.
In some colonized areas, the fusion of European or additional inspirations are more noticeable than others in respects to art and aesthetics. Latin American arts frequently feature a strong Spanish inspiration, though in some definite areas you can notice an important African sway. Quilting in Hawaii uses the Western basics of sewing practices, but features traditional Hawaiian strategy.
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There are examples of portraiture and sculptures in various cultures around the world. The arts of Asia often comprise of commissioned portraits of rulers and queens, and even gods and divinities. Imageries from Hinduism and Buddhism, also as of pagan and animist divinities are found in countries such as China, India, Korea, Japan, Nepal, Thailand and Tibet. Early Egyptian statues often depicted gods and respected pharaohs and rulers. Moai are the large figures on the pacific atoll of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) alleged to be images of appreciated ancestors. A difference between ethnographic works of art and non-Western art necessitates an appreciation of Western art, non-Western art and ethnographic art. This thought l will illuminate the harmonies and variances between the styles.
Many great traditions in art have a foundation in the art of one of the great ancient civilizations: Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, India, China, Ancient Greece, Rome, as well as Inca, Maya, and Olmec. Each of these centers of early civilization developed a unique and characteristic style in its art. Because of the size and duration of these civilizations, more of their art works have survived and more of their influence has been transmitted to other cultures and later times. Some also have provided the first records of how artists worked. For example, this period of Greek art saw a veneration of the human physical form and the development of equivalent skills to show musculature, poise, beauty, and anatomically correct proportions.
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In Byzantine and Medieval art of the Western Middle Ages, much art focused on the expression of Biblical and nonmaterial truths, and used styles that showed the higher unseen glory of a heavenly world, such as the use of gold in the background of paintings, or glass in mosaics or windows, which also presented figures in idealized, patterned (flat) forms. Nevertheless a classical realist tradition persisted in small Byzantine works, and realism steadily grew in the art of Catholic Europe. Renaissance art had a greatly increased emphasis on the realistic depiction of the material world, and the place of humans in it, reflected in the corporeality of the human body, and development of a systematic method of graphical perspective to depict recession in a three-dimensional picture space.
In the east, Islamic art's rejection of iconography led to emphasis on geometric patterns, calligraphy, and architecture. Further east, religion dominated artistic styles and forms too. India and Tibet saw emphasis on painted sculptures and dance, while religious painting borrowed many conventions from sculpture and tended to bright contrasting colors with emphasis on outlines. China saw the flourishing of many art forms: jade carving, bronzework, pottery (including the stunning terracotta army of Emperor Qin), poetry, calligraphy, music, painting, drama, fiction, etc. Chinese styles vary greatly from era to era and each one is traditionally named after the ruling dynasty. So, for example, Tang Dynasty paintings are monochromatic and sparse, emphasizing idealized landscapes, but Ming Dynasty paintings are busy and colorful, and focus on telling stories via setting and composition. Japan names its styles after imperial dynasties too, and also saw much interplay between the styles of calligraphy and painting. Woodblock printing became important in Japan after the 17th century
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The western Age of Enlightenment in the 18th century saw artistic depictions of physical and rational certainties of the clockwork universe, as well as politically revolutionary visions of a post-monarchist world, such as Blake's portrayal of Newton as a divine geometer, or David's propagandistic paintings. This led to Romantic rejections of this in favor of pictures of the emotional side and individuality of humans, exemplified in the novels of Goethe. The late 19th century then saw a host of artistic movements, such as academic art, Symbolism, impressionism and fauvism among others.
The history of twentieth century art is a narrative of endless possibilities and the search for new standards, each being torn down in succession by the next. Thus the parameters of Impressionism, Expressionism, Fauvism, Cubism, Dadaism, Surrealism, etc. cannot be maintained very much beyond the time of their invention. Increasing global interaction during this time saw an equivalent influence of other cultures into Western art, such as Pablo Picasso being influenced by African sculpture. Japanese woodblock prints (which had themselves been influenced by Western Renaissance draftsmanship) had an immense influence on Impressionism and subsequent development. Later, African sculptures were taken up by Picasso and to some extent by Matisse. Similarly, the west has had huge impacts on Eastern art in the 19th and 20th centuries, with originally western ideas like Communism and Post-Modernism exerting a powerful influence on artistic styles.
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Modernism, the idealistic search for truth, gave way in the latter half of the 20th century to a realization of its unattainability. Relativism was accepted as an unavoidable truth, which led to the period of contemporary art and postmodern criticism, where cultures of the world and of history are seen as changing forms, which can be appreciated and drawn from only with irony. Furthermore the separation of cultures is increasingly blurred and some argue it is now more appropriate to think in terms of a global culture, rather than regional cultures.
The creative arts are often divided into more specific categories, each related to its technique, or medium, such as decorative arts, plastic arts, performing arts, or literature. Unlike scientific fields, art is one of the few subjects that are academically organized according to technique . An artistic medium is the substance or material the artistic work is made from, and may also refer to the technique used. For example, paint is a medium used in painting, and paper is a medium used in drawing.
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An art form is the specific shape, or quality an artistic expression takes. The media used often influence the form. For example, the form of a sculpture must exist in space in three dimensions, and respond to gravity. The constraints and limitations of a particular medium are thus called its formal qualities. To give another example, the formal qualities of painting are the canvas texture, color, and brush texture. The formal qualities of video games are non-linearity, interactivity and virtual presence. The form of a particular work of art is determined by both the formal qualities of the media, and the intentions of the artist.
A genre is a set of conventions and styles within a particular medium. For instance, well recognized genres in film are western, horror and romantic comedy. Genres in music include death metal and trip hop. Genres in painting include still life and pastoral landscape. A particular work of art may bend or combine genres but each genre has a recognizable group of conventions, clichés and tropes. (One note: the word genre has a second older meaning within painting; genre painting was a phrase used in the 17th to 19th centuries to refer specifically to paintings of scenes of everyday life and can still be used in this way.)
The style of an artwork, artist, or movement is the distinctive method and form followed by the respective art. Any loose brushy, dripped or poured abstract painting is called expressionistic. Often a style is linked with a particular historical period, set of ideas, and particular artistic movement. So Jackson Pollock is called an Abstract Expressionist.
Because a particular style may have specific cultural meanings, it is important to be sensitive to differences in technique. Roy Lichtenstein's (1923-1997) paintings are not pointillist, despite his uses of dots, because they are not aligned with the original proponents of Pointillism. Lichtenstein used Ben-Day dots: they are evenly spaced and create flat areas of color. Dots of this type, used in halftone printing, were originally used in comic strips and newspapers to reproduce color. Lichtenstein thus uses the dots as a style to question the "high" art of painting with the "low" art of comics - to comment on class distinctions in culture. Lichtenstein is thus associated with the American Pop art movement (1960s). Pointillism is a technique in late Impressionism (1880s), developed especially by the artist Georges Seurat, that employs dots that are spaced in a way to create variation in color and depth in an attempt to paint images that were closer to the way people really see color. Both artists use dots, but the particular style and technique relate to the artistic movement adopted by each artist. (N, 2003)
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These are all ways of beginning to define a work of art, to narrow it down. "Imagine you are an art critic whose mission is to compare the meanings you find in a wide range of individual artworks. How would you proceed with your task? One way to begin is to examine the materials each artist selected in making an object, image video, or event. The decision to cast a sculpture in bronze, for instance, inevitably affects its meaning; the work becomes something different from how it might be if it had been cast in gold or plastic or chocolate, even if everything else about the artwork remains the same. Next, you might examine how the materials in each artwork have become an arrangement of shapes, colors, textures, and lines. These, in turn, are organized into various patterns and compositional structures. In your interpretation, you would comment on how salient features of the form contribute to the overall meaning of the finished artwork. [But in the end] the meaning of most artworks... is not exhausted by a discussion of materials, techniques, and form. Most interpretations also include a discussion of the ideas and feelings the artwork engenders.
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