Custom «Orthodox and Heterodox Schools» Essay Paper Sample

Orthodox and Heterodox Schools

The Vedic are considered as entirely Sruti texts and can be rear directly. In addition, they have memory. The Smrti texts put emphasis on the written teachings as they are viewed to be sacred. However, they are not that important. The main teachings revealed in the principal of “Upanishads” highlights on how they received their instructions. They regard them as secrets and are only disclosed to special teachers. The main idea is to explain the nature of reality.

The major intrigues in the great Indian epics are the beautifully written texts which include: Mahabharata and Ramayana. These are important conversations of Shastras on legal, social, and ethical regulations which were written to challenge Buddhism, materialism, and Jainism.

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Three types of Heterodox schools existed and included: Animism: - This was founded by Vardhamana. Its teachings have an absolute respect for life and oppose war as it is non-violent. The second is Buddhist. This was founded by Prince Siddhartha Guatama. Its teachings encompassed a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices that were attributed to Buddha. The third type was the Materialist (Carvaka) school. It was founded by Carvakan. Its teachings assumed various forms of philosophical skepticism and religious indifference. Mimansa School emphasizes on the interpretations of Buddhism and Jainism in the Vedas and Upanishads. This leads to the Purva-Mimamsa dealing with the first two parts of the Veda concerned with sacrifices and rituals.  The Uttara-Mimamsa is more commonly used as the Vedanta since it focuses on the last two parts of the Veda particularly with regard to the Upanishad.

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The main emphasis in each of the six orthodox Indian schools of philosophy are: 1. Nyaya School is the debate customary philosophical discourse since the rules of logic were needed to be applied were being and devised and provides common grounds for all schools, 2. Vaisheshika School is a system primarily attempting to examine the nature of the universe it is cosmological and argues the physical reality of invisible, indestructible atoms.3. Samkhya School is a system essentially concerned with evolution focused between purusha (self) and prakriti or conditions that are material. 4. Yoga School is the foundation of fundamental metaphysical position of Samkhya with emphasis on discipline to attain liberation. 5. Mimansa School emphasis interpretations of Buddhism and Jainism in the Vedas and Upanishads leading to: Purva- mimamsa dealing with the first two parts of the Veda concerning sacrifice and ritual. Uttara-Mamamsa is more commonly used as the Vedanta since it focuses on the last two parts of the Veda particularly with the Upanishads.

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Vedanta schools being more influential meant that the Veda had come to an end as it was concerned with one of the major text forms. On the other hand, the Bhagavad Gita was examining the ultimate reality of nature.

Three of the most outstanding reporters of Vedanta and their particular positions are: the Vedanata, which is the first teaching of Upanishads. It also deals with ideas from the Bhagavad Gita.  Major texts are assigned to Badarayana. This is called the Vendanta Sutra.

The most renowned Indian thinker in Indian philosophy is the Rabindranath Tagore. He is more of a poet than a philosopher. The next one was Bhagavan Das, widely known for having guided spiritual teachings. Mohammed Ghandi is well-known as the force behind India’s drive for independence from the British rule. Finally, Sri Aurobindo Ghose was interested in the existence of the descending and ascending process of the Divine. Of all the modern Hindu philosophers, Sarephalli Radhakrishnan is the most significant and respected as a marvelous thinker. The three charms of Buddhism are: the life of Buddha, the Buddha’s Dharma, that is, the teachings, and Sangha, which is the Buddhist order that is committed to Buddha’s teachings. The process of splitting up Buddhism into two major systems brought out major issues of argument as it was alleged that some monks misused the rule called the Great Schism that formed two well-known schools. These were the Mahasanghika, which is the real assembly of pro Vaisali monks and the Sthaviravada, which are the Theravada of teachings of the Elders who were strict with the Vinaya interpretation.

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In the early Buddhist schools, the major teachings were based on the Elders dealing with the reality of the world in whether it was real or an illusion. These were interpreted by the teachers’ silence with regard to issues that neither affirmed nor denied the reality of the world. Other teachings were based on every other thing that existed.

Nagarjuna, found by pioneer Buddhist philosopher in contrast to Asanga and Vasubandhu, were the most outstanding schools representatives in this era. The leading idea in Mahayana Buddhism is the Dharma. Buddhism decline in India was the experienced as apart of the gradual revival such as popular movements as bhakti. The Islamic rule in India and the Muslim destruction of Buddhist temples along with the Sanara’s teachings became widespread and were linked to scholars who spoke against Buddhist lessons. This was the real discerning distinction from Hindu practices. The monastic system was disconnected from the public affairs.

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The most disclosing early Confucians during this period were the Confucius, Mencius, and Hsun Tzu.  The Confucius showed radical change from traditional preoccupation, some of his lessons included: developing the centrality of humans and moral humans; being true to the principles of our nature and the benevolent exercise of them to others.  Mencius systematized Confucius’s teaching believes in the innate goodness of all people that one must live a life of virtue and develop moral character. Hsun Tzu highlighted on official rampant corruption; spoke on rules or right conduct to achieve social order. He thinks that all individuals were essentially evil and he promoted the cultivation of ritual as antidote to humankind’s depravity. To contrast the Taoism and Confucianism disagreements on their several points of their compressions where how the world functions and the best role for a person to play in that world, it showed that Confucianism tends to despise nature and Taoism enjoys the beauty in nature. The major contrast between Confucianism and Taoism was that they view the role of a person in the world around him. However, Confucianism rebels against the dictatorial role of Legalism and they still take a far more aggressive position than Taoism. Also, Confucians desire to impose will upon their world and the Taoists believe in Natural Law where the world should be allowed to go on unobstructed. In contrasting the Confucius is to forge a moral society that protected the world while the way of Lao Tzu is to allow man and nature to come into a harmonic coexistence. Describing the meaning of Tao that means the “way” that is the principle for all things and the source of things coming into existence and things to ceasing to exist. The meaning of “te” is “virtue” in the sense of personal character, inner strength and integrity. “wu-wei” literally means non-acting or non-doing that refers to the behavior that arises from a sense of one. The meaning of Mo Tzu’s utilitarianism emphasizes universal love—that people should love all other as they love their own families and states. He also advocated moderation in social affairs, including funeral rites. Han Fei's attitude towards human nature is quite different to that of Confucius, and he claimed that human nature is bad and that every individual thirsts for fame and gain, riches and honor, ease and comfort, and wants to free himself or herself from poverty and destitution, suffering and toil. Han Fei Tzu and the Legalist school view the rule of reward and punishment teaching theoretical basis for centralized for absolute authority of the ruler while Confucianists’ appeal to the traditions of Legalists putting forth radical position for genuine authority being adapted to circumstances in the present which claim the rule of virtue. The Middle Period included the Confucianism becoming the official state philosophy, and it assimilates elements and ideas from the Yin-Yang school. Taoism witnesses resurgence in interest and Buddhism is introduced into China and gradually competes in popularity with Confucianism. The difference between the New Text and the Old Text schools in Confucianism is that the New Text was characteristic of Tung Chung-shu. However, the Old Text was characterized by Wang Ch’ung who criticized superstitions and emphasized divinations.  Confucianism on the other hand was balance. The Neo-Taoist view of Tao enabled more acceptances of Buddhist ideas by the metaphysical principles of Taoism. This posed a higher level by raising the status drastically to a higher development of all beings manifested in wu or nothingness. The difference from Confucian where the individual self is defined; and Buddhist whose teachings are worldly and transcendental oriented in the idea of nirvana. The Confucian perspective was that individual self defined to collective stress relationally prescribing duties to family and society. The Buddhist teachings in China were through modification and assimilation. Their political fracture and their influence of Confucianism were wanting. The upper class plus the commoners, who showed interest in various approaches that included Buddhism, especially supported them. Disunity among the political upheaval in the lower classes felt comfort in saving doctrines of Mahayana Buddhism along with the Buddhist clergy who required more patronage. T’ien-t’ai and Ch’an are the major Chinese Buddhist schools and also their teaching. T’ien-t-ai dealt with single absolute mind called Bhutatatthata while Ch’an dealt with meditation and underlined the Indian’s practice of sitting in hopes of feelings the mind of attachment (dharma). Buddhist teachings had several reasons that aroused opposition from the Confucians. The Buddhists focused more on the void and non-self while the Neo-Confucians responded by becoming more organized with the School of Principle. The Rational Schools and the School of Mind (Idealistic) and the Empirical School were involved.

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Neo-Confucianst was Chu His’ the greatest importance. The T’ai, Li, and Ch’i, for him, are centralized around the Heavenly principles that do not operate on its own.  This formed total principle of all formation that manifests all phenomena in the principles. Comparing the leading ideas of the School of Principle, known as the Rational School and the School of Mind, known as the Idealist are easily profiled through the teachings of their representatives. Ch’eng Yi and Chu Hsi started the School of Principle and Lu Hsiang-shan and Wang Yang-ming started the School of Mind. Both schools agreed that the human mind is completely unified and reflects perfectly in itself the principle of the universe. The scholars of the School of Principle believed in empirical investigation, for they believed that to find the principle of any material, the main idea was to find the principle inherent in all material and intellectual processes. However, the School of Mind emphasized that the human mind is completely unified and identical with the Universal Mind or the Ultimate, Li and Ch’i.  The School of Mind does not make a sharp contrast between mind and nature, and thus did not distinguish between nature and feelings as did Chu Hsi. The outstanding points of modern Chinese philosophy were interested in the new logic of Western philosophical imports.  The Marxism became the official doctrine with more scientific, practical, world-affirming disposition became more focused and Confucian’s thoughts. 

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Some of the outstanding highlights of the early Buddhism in Japan were the Zen Buddhist which was thought to be imported from China (Ch’an Buddhism) and this was unique to Japan where you would find immediate stress and pure experience. The founder of Tendai was the spiritual leader Dengyo Daishi and that of the Shingon sect was Kobo Daishi.  The main text of the Tendai School is Saddharmapundarika Sutra or Lotus Sutra.  This work teaches that all are capable of becoming Buddhas. Kukai founded the Shingon Buddhist schools. He studied the teachings of the Mi-Tsung in China and systematized them in Singon. For the court and ordinary people, much of Shingon’s appeal was it emphasized on spells and medical formula as well as mantras. The appeal of Buddhism to the Japanese was useful in preventing illness and drought. It did enhance Japanese central role of loyalty and family. Some of the examples of the influence of Confucianism on the Japanese were mutual relationship between Heaven and human affairs that fit with Japanese notion of divine ancestry. It is also focused on the final piety of Japanese as very valuable. Leading ideas and figures in the following major Japanese Buddhist Schools are: Joboshu taught by Honen Shonin and faith in chanting the Buddha’s name. Hokke taught by Nichiren, the Lotus Sutra-text, Tendi/Shingon- ideas. Nichiren claimed Buddha’s teachings. Zen founded by Eisai with important of teaching and on the sitting while meditating.

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