Custom «Motivational Problem» Essay Paper Sample
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Motivation simply means the energy one puts toward the behaviors related to the kind of work one does. According to Ken Williams, motivation means the initiatives that initiate direct behavior and sustain employees in an organization. He further classifies the reasons for motivational problems into internal and external reasons. The external reasons are the reactions of the employees towards the situation. They are: the work given is too difficult, there is insufficient positive response or feedback from the employees or work, the work is not fulfilling or challenging, interpersonal conflicts to the employee a work or elsewhere. The internal factors include: physical conditions that may not be recognized or diagnosed, lack of appropriate habit patterns such as a negative attitude to what one is doing, lack of already set goals or any other work related skills and poor self esteem often related to emotional conflicts of the person.
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In order to create a productive and fulfilling relationship between the management and staff, the employees should be satisfied. What this means is that when the employees enjoy the kind of work they do and they are rewarded for the kind of work they do, or for the effort they put, the organization will be a success. Employees in any organization need to know and feel that they are respected for their contribution to the organization and above all they are valued.
If the employees' needs are not met what results is low self esteem which leads to chaos in the organization. According to Ed Sykes, there are several ways that an employer can show appreciation to his or her employees: when the employer is appreciating the employee for some good work that she did, they should be specific. This gives the employee a clear understanding of what the employer is showing appreciation for and he will be motivated to take the same project in the future. The employer should also congratulate the employee as soon as the action happens, since, the more the time elapses, the less the impact it will have in motivating the employee. For better results, the appreciation of employees should be made in public since it not only makes the employee proud of their work but also makes the other employees want to be appreciated in the future, so they will work hard for the same to happen to them.
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A number of theories have come up that attempt and describe the issue of motivation to employees. Most theories have broadly been grouped into four: of cognitive process, need based, behavioral and job based. Below are some theories that try and explain how to motivate workers by appreciating them (Hiam, 2003).
Frederick Herzberg: motivation and hygiene theory
According to Herzberg, the work environment and peoples' work play a very big role in motivating workers in the work place. This motivation theory is grouped into motivational factors and the hygiene factors. The hygiene factors are those things that the employees believe they are entitled to in the work environment like: working conditions that are satisfactory, adequate pay, and a decent working relationship with the boss. Motivational factors are the things that make the employees work beyond what they are expected per their job descriptions. (Craig, 1984)
These factors are found within the job and make employees more satisfied with the work they do. If these factors are not present, the employees will do their work but will do it in the least way possible, that is, they will perform to the minimal expectation. Some of these factors, according to Fredrick are: clearly set goals and expectations, an understanding of how the employees bring value to the company (benefit), being appreciated for a well-done job and career and professional growth opportunities. According to Herzberg, for optimal motivation in the work place the two factors, hygiene and motivation factors, out to be present (Keller, 2009).
The behavioral approach to motivation (B.F Skinner)
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This approach promotes the beneficial behaviors of employees according to the employer, while discouraging those that are not beneficial according to the employer. A reinforce is any stimulus which increases the probability of a behavior increase. Skinner further stipulates that an example of a positive reinforcement is praise from the employer and employees to a new employee who is learning a new task. Behavioral reinforcement, which entails compensation and other reward programs motivate worker immensely. (Fred, 1992)
This theory is derived from the social exchange theory and stipulates that the employees seek to balance the efforts or inputs in the work place with the rewards that are received at the work place. The inputs of the employees according to this theory are behaviors, skills and knowledge, and the volume of work and its quality. The outcomes generated in the company include rewards which include advancement opportunities, praise and compensation. According to this theory, once an employee perceives an inequity, he will adjust his behavior to adjust the behavior into balance. In case the employee for example is undercompensated he can do several things to attain the balance: address the situation with his employer by asking for a pay rise, adjust the comparative standard to which he is comparing his situation, reduce this input to a level that he believes matches the level of compensation he is receiving or simply quit the employment (Nichole, 2009).
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The employee will be satisfied when he receives a ratio of output to input he perceives equitable. This process is not a one instant thing but an ongoing process that needs a period of time to accomplish. This theory has concentrated more on under compensation and failed to focus on overcompensation. And this has made it be deemed as a theory that is useful in describing the factors that contribute to lack of motivation. Fairness perception in the work place is very important. The fairness perceptions are: the fairness of the procedures that determine ones outcomes in an organization are: the perception that one has been treated with respect or dignity(interactional justice),fair procedures being used to determine ones outcomes(procedural justice) and distributive justice which involves equality in the outcome of individuals. These perceptions reduce effects such as risks of retaliation such as sabotage and violence at the work place increasing benefits to the organization. The procedures used to create fair procedures in an organization should be accurate, correctable, and free from bias and should represent all the concerns of the employees. (Mary, 1999)
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Motivating workers is very crucial to any employer with employees working for him as it not only makes the workers comfortable but also increases the level of production for the organization. Sometimes money is not even as important as being appreciated in the work place. This essay only discusses the ways in which employees can be appreciated as a way to solve motivational problems. Despite all this, there are other ways that an employer can improve the performance of the employees such as guaranteeing rewards that are attached to the performance of the workers and those that are valued by the employees.