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According to Kaplan (2009), intelligence is defined as the ability of an individual to gain knowledge about, gain knowledge from, comprehend, and interact with the immediate environment. The ability in this case has been generalized but it constitutes of a good number of definite abilities, for instance malleability to an unfamiliar environment or to alterations in the present environment, competence for knowledge as well as the capability to get hold of it, capability to assess and pass judgment, and competence for innovative and creative thought (Pedersen, 2005).
There are nine types of intelligence and they include naturalist intelligence, musical intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, existential intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, linguistic intelligence, intra-personal intelligence, and spatial intelligence (Handy, 1994).
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Types of Intelligence
This type of intelligence is also referred to as nature smart and it is the type of intelligence that delegates man's ability to differentiate between living things and also other features that belong to the natural world. The ability was indubitably of great value in the human evolution as gatherers, farmers, and hunters; it remains to be fundamental when a chef or a botanist carry out their tasks. It is as well hypothesized that a great deal of man's consumer society makes use of the naturalist intelligences, and this can get mobilized within the differentiation among kinds of makeup, sneakers, and cars (Handy, 1994).
According to Handy (1994), musical intelligence is also referred to as musical smart and can be defined as the capability to discern timbre, rhythm, tone, and pitch. This type of intelligence allows human beings to distinguish, generate, replicate, and speculate on music, as confirmed by musicians, conductors, composers, sensitive listeners, and vocalist. Fascinatingly, there is apparent emotional relationship between music and feelings, for instance musical and mathematical intelligences may assume common processes of thinking. Young adults possessing this type of intelligence are generally drumming or singing to themselves. They are generally quite conscious of sounds which miss out (Handy, 1994).
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Logical-mathematical intelligence can also be referred to as number smart or reasoning smart and can be defined as the capacity quantify, calculate, consider hypotheses and propositions, and execute entire mathematical operations. This type of intelligence enables human beings to perceive connections and relationship as well to use symbolic, theoretical thought; inductive and deductive thinking forms; and sequential reasoning skills. Logical intelligence is generally highly-developed in scientists, detectives, and mathematicians. Young adults possessing logical intelligence in plenty show interest in categories, relationships, and patterns and they are usually attracted to experiments, arithmetic problems, and strategy games (Pedersen, 2005).
Existential intelligence can be defined as the capacity and sensitivity to deal with profound questions concerning man's existence, for instance the importance of life, the reason to why people die, and how human beings get to where they are.
Interpersonal intelligence which is also referred to as people smart can be defined as the capacity to comprehend and interact successfully with others in the environment. With this type of intelligence effective verbal and nonverbal communication, capability to consider several perspectives, sensitivity to temperaments and moods of other people, and the ability to identify differences among others, are all involved. People like social workers, teachers, politicians, and actors all display interpersonal intelligence.
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According to Pedersen (2005), bodily kinesthetic intelligence can also be referred to as body smart and is defined as the ability to operate objects and employ a diversity of physical skills. This type of intelligence as well engages a sense perfection of skills and timing by mind-body union. Surgeons, athletes, craftspeople, and dancers reveal the most developed bodily kinesthetic intelligence.
Linguistic intelligence is also referred to as word smart and can be defined as the capacity to think in words and to employ language in expressing and appreciating multifaceted meanings. This type of intelligence enables one to comprehend the order of words and their meaning as well as to employ meta-linguistic skills to reveal their use of language. Linguistic intelligence is the most commonly shared human aptitude which is depicted in journalists, poets, effective public speakers, and novelists (Handy, 1994).
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Intra-personal intelligence is also called self smart and can be defined as the capability to be aware of oneself as well as one's feelings and thoughts, and to utilize such understanding in giving a good plan and direction to one's life. Intra-personal intelligence involves positive reception of the self as well as human condition. It is depicted in spiritual leaders, philosophers, and psychologist. Most of the young people usually shy since they are aware of their own thoughts and are self-propelled (Craig, 1979).
Spatial intelligence which is also called picture smart can be defined as the capacity to think in three dimensions. The central capabilities include spatial reasoning, mental imagery, artistic and graphic skills, an active imagination, and manipulation of images. The professionals who exhibit spatial intelligence include pilots, sailors, architects, sculptors, and painters.
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Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is the value of intelligence testing which is a score deduced from one the various standardized tests that are designed to evaluate intelligence. In this case a score is expressed as a quotient of mental age and chronological age. Group standardized intelligence, achievement, and aptitude tests have been used to measure intelligence of individuals and still up to date they have not been abolished (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2009).
Controversies concerned with testing
Nature versus nurture shapes the development of human traits most especially intelligence and therefore is among the most persistent scholarly controversies up to date.
IQ tests depend basically upon Symbolic Logic as a way to scoring. For one, symbolic logic is not and as Symbolic Logic is not essentially identical with intelligence, therefore a question remains concerning to precisely what is being measured through such tests. It is very possible that an individual can possess unusual prosperity of emotional intelligence but on the other hand unable to understand the implication of sequentially set shapes. Furthermore, an individual who can't read will be disadvantaged on an IQ test, but illiteracy does not suggest unintelligence (Craig, 1979).
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An assumption of the inconsistence description is that the IQ score is supposed to foresee reading, such that if an individual has got a low IQ score then he or she is indubitably a poor reader and that the consequence of having low IQ is poor reading. Conversely, it has been found that some individuals with low IQ are best readers (Kaplan& Saccuzzo, 2009).
Many researchers have proved the fallibility of IQ tests. They have realized that scores for an individual sometimes vary by some points from one test to another, since anxiety, emotional stress, and strangeness of the testing criteria can seriously influence test performance.
A culture-fair test can be used to minimize some of the controversies that are realized by the other tests intended to measure the IQ. This is a test that is planned to be far from of cultural bias, as much as possible, ensuring that there is no even one culture that will take advantage over the other. The culture-fair test is planned in such away that it won't be acted upon by culture climate, educational level, and even verbal ability (Pedersen, 2005).