Custom «Processes of Socialization» Essay Paper Sample
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Socialization entails the practice of inheriting customs, norms and ideologies. This is an essential process to human beings as it equips them with habits and skills essential for participating in their societies. The society also benefits from the socialization process as it develops culture. The development of this culture happens through the plurality of sharing values, norms, traditions, customs, languages and symbols, and social roles. Therefore, the means of attaining cultural and social continuity refers to socialization. This paper explores how the socialization process creates the individual and the society.
Firstly, the socialization process creates the individual as it enables one to learn the society's culture. This is so because infants are not born with culture. The transformations they under go by the help of their teachers, parents and the society in general helps them to become cultural and social adept animals (Essa, 2010). Secondly, the socialization process creates an individual through personality formation. This is a key aspect of a human's life as it molds beliefs and attitudes. In addition, it provides specific experiences to an individual that are essential in the development of the individual's belief system. Socialization process creates an institution as all institutions have their procedures, values, history and culture. This means that all these things found in an institution need to adherence, by those new in the institution. The socialization process is like a control system of an institution.
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Communication as a process of socialization helps in the creation of an individual as it enables one to learn how to communicate with others. It is through communication that individuals can convey their different feelings and emotions. Secondly, association as a process of socialization also creates an individual. For instance, from the family position, the people hardly lose interest in one another. They associate and have intimate relationship essential for development of individuals as it aids in sharing of feelings, thoughts, sentiments and cooperation in different things. Having learned this from the family level, an individual can easily function within any society.
Total institutions also have an effect on an individual. This effect is evident through their socialization process. A total institution like a prison has strict rules that needs adherence by all inmates. The whole process mortifies an individual, as there is role dispossession, exposure that is contaminative and identity trimming. A mental hospital is also a form of a total institution as these suffering from mental illnesses are confined. This also creates an individual as all activities take place in one place. In conclusion, socialization process is essential in an individual's development. It helps one to learn the culture, history traditions of a place. The process also creates an institution by making it unique in terms of its history, rules and regulations.
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What is Deviance?
Societies have cultures and norms that govern their day-to-day activities. The people in these societies are supposed to observe all the cultural norms. When a person goes against any set cultural-norm, the person's behavior is deviant. The formally enacted rules and social norms also form cultural norms (Clinard & Meier, 2008). Deviance has two categories, which are deviance as reactive construction and deviance as a violation of social norms.
Some of the things considered deviant in taboo are things that one is not supposed to talk about them publicly. The society prohibits and condemns talking of these taboos (Clinard & Meier, 2008). Firstly, murder is a taboo to various societies. This is because they respect human life and a person who takes away another's life receives a harsh punishment. Child molestation is a taboo too. A person who molests a child is socially unfit as the action is inhumane and barbaric. Lastly, rape is also a taboo. The society accepts people engaging in consensual sexual activity, but not a person forcing the other to engage in sex with them.
The society has rules that govern people's behavior. Every person should adhere to the rules and in case of a violation; the society provides correctional facilities. Secondly, the society has those who are in authority. They ensure that the civilians adhere to the laws. Merton's strain theory asserts that deviances occur due to people's needs and wants. This is because their way goals and the means of acquiring them are not related. Strain in an individual's body causes deviance, as there is a disconnection in the society's goals and the means used in achieving of these goals.
On the other hand, differential association theory blames deviance on the learning of the behavior, by the perpetrators. According to this theory, criminals are not inherently criminals, but learn the behavior in the same manner that other behaviors are leaned. Interaction facilitates deviance in this theory as a person gets to adopt symbols that seem favorable than unfavorable. Lastly, labeling theory views deviancy as a creation of the society. The society gives negative terms or labels to actions deemed deviant. Labeling theory assumes that the society invents behaviors considered deviant through the labeling process.
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In conclusion, despite the different perspectives assigned for the term deviance, it is a violation from the society's norms. In taboo, things like murder, rape, child molestation and incest constitute deviance. However, the society uses sanctions to contain deviancy. It does so by use of laws and police officers.