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Andrew Jackson and his policy for Indian Removal
American society has experienced many difficult and controversial events throughout the whole history. One of them was the Indian Removal Act implemented by Andrew Jackson. Consequently, the Act encountered numerous obstacles as well as had considerable effect on the country.
Andrew Jackson as a president placed Indian Removal among the top priorities of his administration. In fact, Martin Van Buren, who was appointed as a Secretary of State, devised the Indian Removal Act. He suggested the removal of the Indians should occur in the nearby white population vicinities. Internal improvements were made with this purpose. Nevertheless, Jackson’s administration crisis took place during policy implementation. Removal of the crisis had been caused by the Georgia Compact of 1802. The federal government signed it with Georgia and, in fact, no Indian group was its party. That agreement influenced Native Americans greatly. It provided Georgia would relinquish all claims to Western lands. In exchange for that, Washington was to assume that the moving of Indians off the land of Georgia would get its promotion (Faragher et al., 2009, vol. 1).
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Finally, the federal treaties with the southern Indians aimed to transfer 20 million acres of land to white settlers and opened the slaveholding Missouri compromise. In 1819, only 5 million of acres were left. Georgia forced officials of the Federal government to remove the Indians. For years, the Federal government resisted these demands, but Jackson elections brought the leader, who was beneficial to such removal (Faragher et al., 2009, vol. 1).
Therefore, Andrew Jackson went through some problems while implementing Indian Removal Act. Although his administration dealt with a crisis, his presidency promoted removal with the help of Georgia Compact of 1802.
Emergence of American middle class
The market revolution was such an event in American history that caused the emergence of the middle class. Every aspect of life, including the most personal and family decisions, was influenced by this revolution. It changed the working life of both men and women. The market revolution altered the social order and created a new middle class with its habits and beliefs thus influencing the perception of family (Faragher et al., 2009, vol. 1).
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Since the beginning of the colonial period, the Southern planters and North merchants were included into the wealthy elite. Somewhere below the elite, but above the masses was “middling sort.” Small professional groups included lawyers, teachers, doctors, some wealthy farmers. It was a social standard that fixed most of the people in that order, in which they were born. However, the major breakthroughs occurred in the life of the “middling sort.” A new economic order required certain habits of workers. Those attributes included responsibility, sobriety, and ability to work hard.
Therefore, economic changes in human life caused alterations in family life of people. While men increasingly focused their attention on their careers and professions, women were taking on new major responsibilities for children instilling new habits for success in the business world (Faragher et al., 2009, vol. 1).
In conclusion, emergence of the middle class was caused by new economic policy of the USA. New standards of business life promoted great demand for educated people and new social order that affected the nature of family.
Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X
Initially, the civil rights movements arose from the strong desire of the Afro-American community to be recognized as equal to white people. It was dropped by the historical injustices of slavery and racism. Two prominent figures, Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X, played a considerable role in this fight employing distinctive, and yet different methods and strategies.
The bus boycott in Montgomery made Martin Luther King a widespread national figure. On the one hand, King was a well-educated person and after graduating from the prestigious Morehouse College, a black school, he earned the degree of Ph.D. in theology. On the other hand, Malcolm X was prone to self-education while he was in prison. King’s methods of protests included maintenance of the Montgomery movement. He collected about100 black ministers and founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). When comparing King to Malcolm X, the second one was the Press Secretary of the black nationalist religious sect that was named the Nation of Islam (NOI). This idea received support and popularity among black ministers. Additionally, King’s messages were sent in his written works. Therefore, his messages were dedicated mainly to American citizens. Malcolm X, unlike Martin Luther King, considered international links between the struggle for civil rights and the problems of developing African Nations as important ones (Faragher et al., 2009, vol. 2).
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Finally, these two persons struggled for the common goal, but they did it differently. Their ideas got great support among various people, although their methods and positions were not equal.
Ideal Female Image of 1950’s
New model of American life took place due to the economic revolution and the emergence of the middle class. With the development of mass media and thus the promotion of certain images, women of 1950s were expected to perform the roles of caring mothers and obedient wives.
Domesticity and motherhood were depicted by the mass media as a main aspect of an ideal woman. She naturally should be married and trained to be a good housewife. At that time, mass media only began its development, and its influence was great. Women perfection at home was set as a societal standard (Coob, 2005). Bringing up of a new generation was considered as the main goal of the female part; thus, mass media mostly highlighted this aspect of women’s life. Many of TV shows depicted mother figure that takes care only about children and husband, nothing else in the world. No doubts, women could not even dream about achieving success without a man or long for a career. Thereby, these events frustrated women. However, such mass media view on female roles scored the movement for women’s rights in the 1960’s.