Custom «Discussion Questions: Liberty and Justice» Essay Paper Sample
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The terms conservatism and liberalism are antonyms to each other, but they share similar attributes in favor of democratic ideals. The two, however, differ in principle in their quest to foster a democratic society. Liberalist’s front argues for a diverse and harmonious society with participatory democracy as its linchpin (Young, 2018). From liberalists' perspective, capacities and powers of individuals are harmonized to create a world that upholds free expression. From a conservatism’s point of view, a democratic society is one that is grounded on justice, and order. Order is the more primal of the two and requires sustenance of a tolerable and acceptable civil social order.
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The three philosophers provide a vision for the realization of individual and social liberty. Although they present their cases using differing concepts, there are some points of convergence. To start with, Berlin, Mill, and Dworkin seem to be agreeing that liberty revolves around the absence of constraints in actions rather personal. Berlin sums this perspective as negative liberty, a notion first coined by Bentham. In support of this notion, Dworkin argues for a minimum level of interference by governmental apparatus to foster eccentricity and individuality. Secondly, there is a consensus as to the positioning of the principle of utility in defining precepts of liberty. This assertion brings into the picture the normative role of the government in developing mechanisms for the realization of liberty. A good example is the polish cultural policy for the government’s active role in defining the acceptable pieces of art worthy of exaltation (Lewandowska, 2018).
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Marx’s materialist conception of history is a theory that postulates that a society’s historical mode of production plays a fundamental role in its structuring and development. It upholds socialism and communism as essentials and not just rhetoric philosophical ideals. It further debunks the idea that history is a product of conscientious ideas (Johnston, 2015). Evolutionist socialists seem to be agreeing in the same concept as they recognize the role of forces of productions in defining social structures. Socialists, however, believe the process of evolution requires active human contribution. Evolutionists view is more practical as it assumes that active human contribution shapes forces of production.
Rawl’s Fairness Principle provides a comprehensive system for conceptualizing justice. Rawl postulates that justice is defined by the application of two principles; liberty and equality. The latter can be divided into two more categories that include difference principle and equality of opportunity. The combination ensures that minions’ interests remain relevant to the advancement of societal interests. Nozick opposes nearly the entire Rawl’s argument. For instance, he considers the presumption of equality null, that equal opportunity does not apply as a right, and naturally acquired wealth as just (Corlett, 2016). Rawl’s sense of justice is more logical and applicable to the contemporary world. In taxation, for example, Nozick is wrong in arguing that it amounts to slavery, yet, its most reasonable equalization mechanisms applied by most governments.