Custom «After-Action Reviews Paper» Essay Paper Sample

After-Action Reviews Paper

Bombings are terrorists' activities, which normally lead to loss of lives and property. In United States, the FBI reported more than 300 bombings between 1980 and 2000. People or groups capitalize on the availability of explosives components and bomb making information to make these weapons of mass destruction. Someone may think that he or she can never have to respond to a bombing, but its essential to know that terrorist using bomb attack are on the increase.

The 2005 London Bombings

Four terrorist bombs exploded in London on 7 July 2005. The incident killed more than 52 people and left several at least 700 casualties. The attacks provoked great response from the emergency services. The bombings nearly brought a standstill in London's public transport system. It caused many security alerts within the city and throughout the country. There were security alerts at Brighton, Swindon, Luton and Birmingham. There was a suspect package at East Croydon, which caused panic. Several incidents similar to this occurred at other places. In Poole suspicious packages led to the train station to be closed (Martinfrost, 2010). The bombings also led to the suspension of the entire London bus system.

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The bombings brought the government to realize that many services provided need improvement. Communication services especially within public transport system and medical treatment are in dire need of improvement. The home office said that reception and assistance centers needed to be established. Inadequate communication equipment hindered the emergency crew leading to delay of treating of the casualties. Some rescuers' had equipment that failed to work on the underground tunnel. There was no immediate notice given to ambulance. Thus, patience's' arrival in hospitals become difficult. Medical supply was inadequate. The incident caused a general lack of belief in the magnitude of everything that was taking place. For illustration, the first ambulance arrived at the scene some 40 minutes after the blast. This was after police had already confirmed more than 200 casualties. Regardless of the fact that the police had called for virtually all units of ambulance available, only one was at the vicinity of the blast half an hour later. Later, London Ambulance declared that it would dispatch Ambulance only to patience with life threatening conditions. A report by London assembly recommended major improvement on the emergency communication.

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The 1995 Oklahoma City Bombing

April 19, 1995. Alfred P. Murrah Federal building in downtown Oklahoma City was bombed. The blast claimed 168 lives and more than 600 people were injured. The blast destroyed property within sixteen-block radius. It caused damage to more than 300 buildings. Property damaged amounted to an estimated $ 650 million. Federal, Local, state and international agencies were involved in the rescue efforts. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) called into action more than ten Urban search and rescue task forces. Six hundred and sixty five rescue personnel were engaged in the rescue efforts. At 9:03 am, Emergency medical services authority (EMSA) received the first call related to the attack.

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However, even before this call, firefighters, police, civilians and EMSA ambulances were already on their way to the bombing site. Immediately after hearing the loud blast, they moved to action without wasting time. Assisting the victims began immediately. Representatives from military, human services, public safety and health agencies were established at the scene within 23 minutes of the bombing. State Operations Center (SEOC) was set up by this time. All its agencies including National weather service, Air force, American Red Cross and The civil air patrol were at the scene assisting victims (Osborne, 1998). More than 50 people were rescued within the first hour. Some 153 victims received treatment at St Anthony Hospital by the end of the first day. According to Geraldine, (2003) the Oklahoma National Guard provided security. They arrived at the scene within an hour of the blast. Within 90 minutes of the bombing, Charlie Hanger arrested Timothy McVeigh for carrying a weapon unlawfully. Forensic evidence connected McVeigh and his accomplice Terry Nicholas to the attack. Investigations proved the two were guilty of planning and executing the attack. McVeigh planned the bombing because of his hatred of the federal government. He believed that federal government had mishandled the Waco Siege (1993) incident. He planned the attack to coincide with the second anniversary of Siege's death.

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The 1996 Olympic bombing.

Thousands of spectators had gathered at the Continental Olympic Park for a rock concert. Jack Mack and the Heart attack were on the stage when the bombe exploded .Rudolph had planted three pipe bombs around the base of the of the concert sound tower. The bomb was the biggest pipe bomb in U.S. history whose weight was over 40 pounds. The bomb could have caused more harm but luckily, it got tipped over at a point. A security guard discovered the bag and alerted the authorities. As the guards were clearing off the area for the bomb squad to examine the package, it exploded. The bomb exploded at exactly 1:20 AM killing two people and causing injuries to more than 110 others. The police cordoned off the area immediately after the explosion. Areas surrounding the concert area remained closed for feared that there might be another explosion. Investigations showed that Eric Rudolph had planned and executed the bombings. His trial commenced in July 2004. He later admitted to have planned the crime. He was sentence to serve four consecutive life sentences.

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Several aspects of the bombings are similar. All the three bomb attacks occurred at densely populated areas. London transport, Murrah building and the Olympic grounds are a high population areas. The organizers of these crimes desired to take as many lives as possible. The three attacks also caused the authorities to plan improving some area of operation. The London bombings caused the authorities to recommended major upgrading on the emergency communication. The Oklahoma City Bombing and Olympic bombing caused the law enforcement agencies to examine any article in public surroundings that is unattended.


It is clear that the response at the 1995 Oklahoma City Bombing was instantaneous and led to saving more lives. Federal, Local, state and international agencies were involved in the rescue efforts responded immediately. They moved to action without any delay. Once they heard the blast, they were on their way to begin the rescue of victims. (SEOC) ensured that all its agencies were at the scene and that is how they were able to assist more than50 people one hour after the blast.

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On the other hand, 2005 London Bombings only led to the reckoning of how unprepared security personnel are. From inadequate communication equipment which led to delays to slow response of ambulance services. . Some rescuers' had equipment that failed to function. Therefore, no immediate notice reached ambulance service. Patience's' arrival in hospitals become was not easy. Medical supply was insufficient. The pace of rescue effort was slow in comparison to Oklahoma City Bombing (Indystar, 2010).

For illustration, at the London Bombings the first ambulance arrived at the scene 40 minutes after the blast. Only one ambulance was at the area of 'the blast half an hour later .However, at Oklahoma City Bombing, (SEOC) had established its agencies within the first 20 minutes. The air force, American Red Cross and The civil air patrol were executing the rescue operation by this time. The slow response led London assembly to recommended major upgrading on the emergency communication.

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